jueves, junio 05, 2008

Contactos con extraterrestres en 100 años

El ser humano será capaz de contactar por primera vez con vida inteligente extraterrestre en un plazo de cien años, más de una vida para el hombre pero "no más de una milésima de segundo en la escala del Universo", según Frank Drake, pionero en la búsqueda de civilizaciones fuera de nuestro planeta.

(EFE) El presidente del Instituto estadounidense SETI (Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence) ha asegurado en una entrevista con EFE que el tan esperado contacto con vida extraterrestre está cada día más cerca gracias a la evolución de la tecnología, que hace posible ahora contar con radiotelescopios cien mil millones de veces más potentes que los de los años 60, y capaces de recibir señales de radio y luminosas emitidas desde puntos muy alejados del universo.

Drake, autor de la célebre ecuación que calcula las civilizaciones extraterrestres que existen, está convencido de la existencia de otras culturas en alguno de los 280 sistemas planetarios que se han contabilizado hasta ahora.

"Cada semana descubrimos nuevos planetas. Y todo indica que la vida en ellos podría ser muy factible. La química de la vida es muy sencilla y se puede duplicar en planetas similares a la Tierra. Es por eso por lo que creo que hay vida al menos en forma microbiológica en mucho de los planetas que hemos descubierto", ha apuntado.

Pese a admitir que "es más difícil afirmar en cuántos casos esa vida podría haber evolucionado a formas inteligentes y con una tecnología que podamos detectar", no tiene dudas de que existen, sólo en la Vía Láctea, unas 10.000 civilizaciones.

El principal problema es que "no sabemos nada de ellas", subraya este científico de casi 80 años, que ha visitado Barcelona para pronunciar una conferencia en CosmoCaixa.

Es por ello por lo que el esfuerzo de centros como el SETI, volcados en la búsqueda en el universo de un eco de vida no terrestre, está centrado en conseguir aparatos lo suficientemente sofisticados como para captar señales codificadas como una señal de televisión, lo que para Drake sería algo así como una panacea.

"Si pudiésemos detectar la señal de televisión de una civilización extraterrestre podríamos aprender todo lo bueno que tienen, podríamos deducir todo al instante, sin necesidad de enviar un mensaje y esperar millones de años a obtener una respuesta", afirma este científico.

En 1974, Drake transmitió un mensaje codificado a través de ondas electromagnéticas a la constelación de Hércules, donde muchos científicos creen en la posibilidad de que haya vida.
Proyectos SETI

Existen numerosos proyectos SETI que tratan de encontrar vida extraterrestre inteligente, ya sea por medio del análisis de señales electromagnéticas capturadas en distintos radiotelescopios, o bien enviando mensajes de distintas naturalezas al espacio con la esperanza de que alguno de ellos sea contestado. Hasta la fecha, sin embargo, no se ha detectado ninguna señal de claro origen extraterrestre.

La actividad del SETI, que adquirió notoriedad con la película "Contact", protagonizada por Jodie Foster, está sufragada completamente desde hace años por fondos privados, pese a que los primeros proyectos, durante los años 70, surgieron auspiciados por la NASA.

Uno de los más famosos, "SETI@Home", es apoyado por millones de personas de todo el mundo mediante el uso de sus ordenadores personales, que procesan la información capturada por el radiotelescopio de Arecibo, emplazado en Puerto Rico y el más potente del planeta.

Frank Drake defiende que si encontramos otras civilizaciones sería posible aprender cosas muy útiles como, por ejemplo, cómo producir energía de la fusión nuclear, y buscar la manera de paliar el hambre o las catástrofes naturales, además de buscar alternativas para nuestro futuro, amenazado por el previsto crecimiento del Sol en pocos millones de años.

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